Dr. Moshe N. Schwarzberg
The modern roots of the Israeli (Jewish)-Arab (Muslim) conflict begin in 1882, with the first wave of return of the Jews to their ancient biblical homeland. The Holy Land, the Land of Israel, Judea (the Royal Israeli Tribe), the Hebrew (meaning "those who crossed over" the Jordan River, thirteenth century BCE) Land, and Palestine (a Roman term) were synonyms used to describe a primitive region in the Turkish Ottoman Empire (1517-1917), which was sparsely inhabited, consisting mostly of desert and marshes. The phenomenon of Jewish settlers purchasing land and making a living through agricultural cultivation was called “Conquest” (of the emptiness) by the Zionist (after Zion, the lyric biblical name of Israel) Movement.
The Emblem of Israel is the candelabrum used in the First Temple of Jerusalem erected by King Solomon, tenth century BCE. It symbolizes universal enlightenment. The surrounding olive branches symbolize peace.
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